As the implementation of 3 (three) higher education assignments, one of which is community service, the Sebelas Maret University service team which focuses on the field of welding is chaired by Prof. Triyono with members Dr. Nurul Muhayat and Sukmaji Indro C., M.Eng. collaborating with Inlastek Welding Institute Surakarta to organize welding training in Jaten sub-district, Karanganyar district. This activity is packaged in the PNBP UNS Community Partnership Program (PKM) for the 2019 fiscal year with contract Number 517 / UN27.21 / PM / 2019. This activity is based on a condition in which most of the welders in household welding workshops can do welding work by self-learning or by apprenticing in a previous welding workshop, not through training at an Authorized Training Body (ATB). ) so that it has several weaknesses, including:As the implementation of 3 (three) higher education assignments, one of which is community service, the Sebelas Maret University service team which focuses on the field of welding is chaired by Prof. Triyono with members Dr. Nurul Muhayat and Sukmaji Indro C., M.Eng. collaborating with Inlastek Welding Institute Surakarta to organize welding training in Jaten sub-district, Karanganyar district. This activity is packaged in the PNBP UNS Community Partnership Program (PKM) for the 2019 fiscal year with contract Number 517 / UN27.21 / PM / 2019. This activity is based on a condition in which most of the welders in household welding workshops can do welding work by self-learning or by apprenticing in a previous welding workshop, not through training at an Authorized Training Body (ATB). ) so that it has several weaknesses, including:
a. The theoretical knowledge of the properties of the material during welding is weak.
b. The welder’s knowledge of welding joint design is lacking.
c. The quality and safety factor of the weld joint cannot be justified technically.
d. Welding products in a construction have not been tested by standards so that if you get an order for a construction work that contains a security risk, it will be very dangerous.
e. Do not have a welding certificate.
f. The welder does not understand the welding construction work drawing that contains the symbols of the welding work, so if he gets a job based on technical drawings, the welder cannot read the drawing.
g. The welders do not understand the behavior of the material during welding, so they often carry out the wrong production process which can reduce the mechanical properties of the weld joint, for example after welding, flush the water directly to the weld joint so that it cools quickly.
The stages of implementing welding training and certification are as follows:
Phase I is the training of the welder in the theory of material properties during welding, welding construction design and the welding process. The UNS PKM Team will be the resource person in this training. The PKM team has a Welding Engineer and Welding Inspector certificate from the Japan Welding Engineer Society (JWES) and has often been a speaker in the welding certification program organized by the Indonesian Welding Association (API). After completing the stage of providing theoretical material about the properties of the material during welding and welding structure design, participants can take part in welding training (practice).
Phase II is training and certification at the official Authorized Training Body (ATB) to obtain welding certification for the ISO 9606-1 standard, namely in INLASTEK Surakarta with a 1G position (horizontal) and ends with a welding certification exam. In this test, the welder does not always pass the test due to the strictness of the assessment. If you do not pass the exam, there is a remedy / repeat without charge. In welding certification, PKM is obliged to collaborate with implementing partners because UNS is not a welder certification body so it is not entitled to issue a welder certificate.
Phase III is a welding training practice by making a large canopy in front of the Fatimah Ar-Royyan Jongkang mosque with counterpart funds from the 3rd partner, Takmir Masjid Fatimah Ar-Royyan. The 35 x 7 x 5 meter canopy was designed by the PKM UNS Team by involving a certified welder to further strengthen the understanding of the welding symbol in engineering drawings.
IMPLEMENTATION OF SERVICE AND DISCUSSION
In accordance with the planned implementation stages of the service, the first step is to provide welding theory material to welding technology training participants. This theory is very important because all the participants who took part in this training had never received a welding technique theory. They can weld metal but welding engineering theory does not know. The materials for the welding theory include:
a. These welding techniques are frequently used in workshops and general industry.
The most popular welding techniques for welding workshops are generally shielded metal arc welding due to their relatively low cost. Especially for this type of welding technique, it is reviewed in great detail including welding parameters based on the welding machine (for example, electric current, electric voltage), welding parameters based on the process (welding speed, electrode angle) and welding parameters based on the electrode (electrode diameter, type of wrapping flux).
Another welding technique which is also quite popular is the semi-automatic gas metal welding technique (Gas Metal Arc Welding). This type of welding machine is quite expensive so that only middle to upper welding workshops are able to provide it. This welding machine is semi-automatic, where the welding electrode is a coil of wire that can come out of itself when the welding gun is turned on. The advantage of this welding machine is that it is a long weld without having to stop changing electrodes.
The third welding technique presented to the participants was the tungsten welding technique (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding). Ordinary people often refer to it as argon welding or aluminum welding, because it is often used to weld aluminum material and uses a protective gas in the form of argon.
b. behavior during the welding process.
In the implementation of this training, only steel material became the training topic because steel is the material that is most widely applied in everyday life. Other materials, such as aluminum, copper, and others cannot be delivered in this training considering the very short time. A welder’s understanding of the behavior of the material when welded is very important. During the welding process, the material being welded undergoes a thermal cycle from cold to hot and even melts then cools and freezes. This thermal cycle will greatly affect the characteristics of the material being welded, so knowledge of changes in the properties of the material due to the welding process is very important for welders.
c. Welding joint design and welding symbol in engineering drawings.
In the world of engineering, technical drawing is the language of liaison between engineers who design and operators who work on designs into products. Therefore, designers and operators alike must master this connecting language. In engineering drawings, there are symbols to make the drawing easier. If these symbols are not understood by the operator, the resulting product will not be as designed.
d. Work safety in the welding process.
All participants were given an explanation and were introduced to the standards of safety, safety and work comfort. This is very necessary because it has become a habit in the welding workshop business in general, which overrides work security and safety. Welding masks, masks, gloves and personal protective equipment (PPE) must be worn during the welding process.
The second stage of the implementation of this community service is welding training and certification. The certificate chosen is the ISO 9606-1 welder certificate. To issue this certificate, the UNS Service Team is obliged to collaborate with implementing partners because UNS is not a welder certification body so it is not entitled to issue a welder certificate. The partner invited to work together is Inlastek Welding Institute Surakrta which is an Authorized Training Body (ATB) which has a license from the International Institute of Welding (IIW). This welder training is carried out by putting into practice the theory that has been obtained from the previous stage. The activity starts with a training preparation briefing which includes the preparation of the necessary personal protective equipment, checking all workshop areas to ensure all tools and machines are functioning properly and then studying the welding joint drawings provided by the instructor. The welding symbols and technical drawing readings commonly offered on large projects are also taught to the welder trainee. This understanding can then immediately be put into practice by increasing welding skills in difficult positions. The following are pictures of training activities at Inlastek Welding Institute Surakarta.
Welding training participants
Providing material for welding theory
Welding training briefing
Practice understanding welding symbols in pictures